Upon reflection that webm isn't exactly the best primer for an absolute beginner, it doesn't give you simple guidelines to follow; I sent it moreso to show what can be done with a bit of discipline and patience. You don't need a $200 gym membership to get ripped.
What you should really focus on right now is building a baseline strength:
1. Pushups / Dips
2. Pullups / Chinups
As time goes on you'll have to figure out the amount of repetitions to do yourself, but I suggest to start out in the 6 - 12 range and 3 - 4 sets.
Set goals, smash them, repeat.
>Should I do this to start my day, or to end my day?
It doesn't actually matter that much, do it at a time that is convenient to you.
>How long should my workout last? 20 minutes? An hour?
Aim to get the workout done in an hour, doesn't have to be precise.
>Should I be working to exhaustion, or muscle failure?
If what you want to to build strength, this requires breaking down your muscles (hypertrophy) which requires slow, controlled repetitions. I would suggest to stick to reps and sets, but if you can't make them do it to failure.
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